Pine-Birch Forest

Pine grows under a wide variety of climatic regimes on poor, sandy soils that will not support most deciduous trees. During the Boreal and Pre-Boreal stages, pine predominated over broad areas of northern Europe because of its tolerance for poor soils. With greater soil development later, pine declined, except in sandy soils.

Views of typical pine forest in western Poland on sandy soil—small sand dunes on outwash deposits. A few birch trees are also present. Photos © J.S. Aber.

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