Pine forest in southern Baltic coast, Piaski, Poland. Pine grows under a
wide variety of climatic regimes on poor, sandy soils that will not support
deciduous trees. During the Boreal and Pre-Boreal stages, pine predominated
over broad areas of northern Europe because of its tolerance for poor soils.
With greater soil development later, pine declined, except in sandy soils.
Photo date 7/93; © by J.S. Aber.
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