Mixed deciduous forest in vicinity of Trzebnica, southwestern Poland. The climax forest of the Atlantic period was similar in appearance. Linden (lime), oak, elm, and other hardwoods formed a continuous forest canopy across northern Europe. The mid-Holocene climatic optimum was a time of warmer, milder conditions, in which soil development had reached a peak. Agriculture was not yet a factor for vegetation in northern Europe. Photo date 8/93; © by J.S. Aber.

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