Quivira National Wildlife Refuge
Wetland Environments Interdisciplinary Project

   The main focus of this project was to give a general overview of the various natural resources at Quivira National Wildlife Refuge and the management practices that are used to preserve and enhance the refuge and surrounding area. 

   "The Quivira National Wildlife Refuge is an enhanced wetlands area located in the Rattlesnake Creek Basin in south-central Kansas and is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Established as a National Wildlife Refuge in 1959, the area provides food, water, cover, and protection for many species of birds, wildlife, and fish. Several types of waterfowl take advantage of the refuge in their annual migration. Since, 1959, the refuge has been enhanced and includes more than 30 marshes and ponds covering about 22,000 acres in Stafford, Reno, and Rice Counties." - http://ks.water.usgs.gov/Kansas/qw/quivira/



The climate of Stafford County is sub-humid and is marked by extremes of precipitation and temperature.  In Stafford County the average growing season is about 169 days and has ranged from about 117 to about 198 days.

The normal annual precipitation at Hudson, determined by the U.S. Weather Bureau, is 24.58 inches. However, deviations from the normal are frequent. At Hudson the recorded annual precipitation for the period 1923-47 has ranged from a minimum of 14.17 inches in 1936 to 34.54 inches in 1944. 


According to the 1945 census by the State Board of Agriculture the population of Stafford County was 9,288.

The largest town in Stafford County is Stafford, which had a population of 1,969 in 1945. St. John, population 1,614, is the second largest town and the county seat. Other towns in Stafford County and their 1945 populations are Macksville, 540; Hudson, 235; Seward, 130; and Radium, 76.

Population figures are not available for the small towns of Beaver and Heizer in Barton County, or Zenith in Stafford County. Neola, in Stafford County, serves as a supply station for farmers and as a grain-shipping point.


Stafford County has excellent transportation facilities. The main line of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway traverses Stafford County from east to west through Zenith, Stafford, St. John, and Macksville. An alternate route of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway between Hutchinson and Kinsley passes through Ellinwood, Great Bend, and Pawnee Rock in southern Barton County.

A branch line of the Missouri Pacific Railway running from Kingman to Lamed passes through Stafford, Hudson, Seward, and Radium in Stafford County. Another branch line of the Missouri Pacific runs between Great Bend and Hoisington. A branch line of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railway runs from Great Bend westward to Scott City, passing through Heizer and Albert in west-central Barton County. Another branch line of the Santa Fe runs from Galatia in northwestern Barton County through Susank, Beaver, and Fahrman to McPherson in McPherson County.

Several hard-surfaced Federal and State highways pass through Stafford County. U.S. Highway 505 passes from east to west through Zenith, Stafford, St. John, and Macksville in southern Stafford County. State Highway 19 passes from east to west through Radium and Seward, joining U.S. Highway 281 at a point 2 miles east of Seward. Numerous improved county and township roads serve the remainder of the area.


Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in Stafford County, wheat being by far the most important crop. Other crops include corn, grain sorghums, barley, oats, rye, and alfalfa. The acreage of the principal crops grown in Stafford County in 1948, as reported by the Kansas State Board of Agriculture, is given in the following table.
Crop Totals
Wheat 196,000
All hay exclusive of sorghums 40,510
Sorghums 40,940
Oats 3,970
Barley 4,560
Corn 3,100
Rye 1,080


Stafford County has a total land area of about 508,160 acres, 95.8 percent of which was in farms in 1939. In 1948 there were 1,163 farms in Stafford County, averaging about 420 acres in size.

Irrigation by pumping from wells is practiced to a limited extent in parts of the sand-hills area in Stafford County. In 1944 there were 38 pumping plants in both Barton and Stafford counties, capable of irrigating more than 1,500 acres of land. In most years a much smaller acreage than this is actually irrigated, however.




Just some random legal stuff

The content of the pages directly associated with this project web page in no way reflect the opinions or views of Emporia State University students, faculty, staff, ESU Biology Science Department, ESU Earth Science Department, or university as a whole.  The opinions and conclusions that are documented here are the author(s) property.  Emporia State University is not liable for any damages caused by the content contained herein, and claims no responsibility for the validity of the report content.  (Hmmpfh, so much for educational support)