|Vegetation is consistent with poorly drained floodplain habitats. Some typical species associated with
hydric soils (Wabash-Kennebec-Reading association) are prairie cord grass, aster, and sedges. The habitat types include
wetland prairie, meadows, marshes, open water and mature riparian woodland.
||This area is a critical refuge that houses a unique diversity of fish and wildlife
Wetlands Photo Tour. It is of special concern
because it provides nesting, migratory and wintering habitat for migratory bird species
||The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimate that up to 43% of the threatened and endangered species rely
on wetlands for survival. The Northern Crawfish Frog, Rana areolata circulosa, is a Kansas species in need of
conservation (SINC) that could possibly occur within the wetlands. The key habitat requirements for this secretive species
are crawfish and small mammal burrows, groundwater near or at the surface, and pools that persist after the spring rains
Center for North American Herpetology
|Band||Color||Wavelength (µm)||Appications||band 1 ||Blue || 0.45-0.52 || Separation of soil and vegetation||band 2 ||Green || 0.52-0.60 || Reflection of vegetation||band 3 ||Red || 0.63-0.69 || Chlorophyll absorption||band 4 ||Near Infrared || 0.76-0.90 || Delineation of water boundaries||band 5 ||Mid Infrared || 1.55-1.75 || Vegetative moisture||band 6 ||Far Infrared || 10.4-12.5 || Hydrothermal mapping||band 7 ||Thermal || 2.08-2.35 || Plant heat stress|
|Natural Color Composite.
Combination of bands 1, 2, and 3 (B, G, R). This composite simulates the natural colors of the visible spectrum. Colors appear as they would on a normal color photograph. Active vegetation appears in different shades of green.
||Standard False-color Composite.
Combination of bands 2, 3, and 4. The active vegetation appears in shades of red, whereas emerging vegetation and fallow areas appear in shades of green
||Special False-color Composite.
Combination of bands 3,4, and 5. This composite does a good job separating water features from the surrounding landscape. It was able to differentiate the water skiing pool (royal blue rectangular feature south of K-10) from surrounding land features.
|Component 1||Component 2||Component 3||Component 4||Component 5||Component 6|
The eigenvalues express the amount of variation explained by each component. Looking at the table, principal components 1, 2, and 3 contain 99.23% of the variation. Thus, the six TM bands have been compressed to 3 new component images. It is now possible to maximize the full potential of composites. A PC3, PC 1, PC2 composite was created.
Supervised classification relies on the analyst to define distinct areas with a unique spectral signature. These areas are referred to as training sites. Each area was digitized and assigned a unique identifier. The supervised classification is based on 14 training sites. These sites were selected by visually inspecting the composites and comparing each site to the high resolution DOQQ. The PCA composite was used as the base image for digitizing. The training sites were lumped into four categories: non-active vegetation /barren , active vegetation, water features, and urban areas
Non-active Vegetation -- in the broad sense, exposed soils to emerging vegetation, color tones ranging from white to green (PCA 3,1,2 composite). Assumed as inactive, these classes lack the pink to red tones of active vegetation (2,3,4 composite)
The minimum distance to means classifier did an excellent job differentiating all fourteen landcover categories. Urban and barren/fallow areas were a problem in both the maximumlikelihood and unsupervised techniques. This classifier was able to differentiate urban and fallow/ veg categories north and south of the river. Only a small percentage of riverbank pixels were classified as urban and the sandbanks were correctly classified as barren. These areas are not critical for the analysis of the wakarusa valley that will be addressed in a separate project. The critical areas are the wetlands, agriculture, and urban areas south of highway K-10.
This is a subset of the remnant patch of wetlands, a DOQQ from October 1991 and the 1994 landsat subset scene. One must keep in mind that restoration efforts began in the early '80s with numerous projects to follow beginning in 1991. Only two small sections of virgin wetland meadow remain.
Looking at these two subsets it is evident, in this case, that the minimum distance to means classifier based on the PCA bands is superior. A classification using the 6 TM bands resulted with mixed pixels. The condensing of data from six bands to three bands was the factor that permitted a fairly accurate classification. The fallow areas west and east of the wetlands have been correctly classified. The forested riparian areas along the Wakarusa, the small pond in the northeast corner, residential streets and neighborhoods verify an accurate classification.
The final classification is based on the maximum distance to means classifier with combined urban classes to demonstrate the importance of selecting homogenous pixels. The first MDM classifier utilized homogenous training sites to identify urban areas. At training site A only blue pixels were classified, whereas the final MDM classifier incorporated a heterogenous residential training site. Light blue streets and pink vegetation (trees and grass) were lumped into one category. This was done to incorporate the active vegetation associated with residential neighborhoods. Older neighborhoods will typically have trees with large canopies which will skew urban pixel classification. C refers to "urban 1" pixels and D refers to "urban 2" pixels. It is evident that the new classification was able to incorporate residential vegetation throughout the entire scene. The only significant misclassifications occurred in the Baker Wetlands quadrant. It was not able to differentiate between the highly active aquatic vegetation in the northeast quadrant and residential vegetation.
Campbell, James., 1996. Introduction to Remote Sensing. Gilford Press, New York, New York.
Center for North American Herpetology.http://www.cnah.org/index.asp
South Lawrence Trafficway K-10 (Kansas Department of Transportation). http://www.southlawrencetrafficway.org/1d2_wetlands.html
This webpage was created by Andy Schmidt to fullfill the requirements for the Spring 2002 Advanced Digital Image Processing (ES 775) at Emporia State University. For questions or comments contact Andy Schmidt at firstname.lastname@example.org