Where did all of this sand come from?

       The current theory is that the eolian (wind-blown) sand came from the underlying strata of the region.  Drilling  studies have matched dune sand with large alluvial deposits from the Pliocene and Quaternary periods.  In the north central region much of  the sand is thought to have come from the Ogallala Formation that directly underlies the dunes.

 

see the Nebraska Sand Hills Atlas for details

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