Tests from the Previous Semester
(Spring 1994)
Natural History of Vertebrates Lecture
Emporia State University

These tests are provided as aids for your study so that you can become familiar with the types of questions that will be asked. Do not study only these old tests. New questions will be written each semester and old questions will be modified such that you must learn the definitions and concepts.

Last updated on 21 January 1996.
Provide comments to Dwight Moore at mooredwi@esumail.emporia.edu.
Return to the Natural History of Vertebrates Home Page at Emporia State University.
Natural History of Vertebrates        Name                             
Exam #1                                    Put your name on every page
Spring 1994

Compare and contrast the following pairs of terms.  (5 pts. each)
     NOTE:  Compare means to tell how the two items are similar and
     contrast means to tell how the two items are different.  To just
     give the definition of each is not a correct answer

1.  amphistylic jaw versus hyostylic jaw



2.  monophyletic group versus paraphyletic group



3.  hypocercal tail versus heterocercal tail



4.  anaspids versus pteraspids



5.  swim bladder versus gills



6.  neuromast organ versus ampullary organs



List the four characters that are unique to the Chordata (4 pts.)


Essays (10 pts each)
1.  Describe the evolution of the pectoral fin morphology as you go
from the early elasmobranchs to the modern elasmobranchs.  Be sure to
describe how the modifications were useful to the fish.







2.  Describe the origin of the vertebrate jaw.  Be specific about the
structures involved in the development of the jaw and the geologic time
of appearance.






3.  Describe (this means more than merely name) the five types of
locomotion seen in modern bony fishes.






4.  Given the following groups (Elasmobranchii, Actinistia, Acanthodii,
Holocephali, Tetrapoda, Cephalochordata, Placodermi, Pteraspida,
Petromyzontoidea, Anaspida, Osteostracii, Actinoptergyii), draw a
cladogram that shows the evolutionary relationships among the groups.




Define or describe (2 pts) and give a clear example (2 pts) of each.

1.  counter current exchange



2.  convergent evolution



3.  claspers



4.  continental drift



5.  paedomorphosis



6.  inertial drag

Natural History of Vertebrates        Name                             
Exam #2                                    Put your name on every page
Spring 1994

Compare and contrast the following pairs of terms.  (5 pts. each)
     NOTE:  Compare means to tell how the two items are similar and
     contrast means to tell how the two items are different.  To just
     give the definition of each is not a correct answer

1.  Jacobson's organ versus nasolabial groove


2.  protandrous versus protogynous



3.  amniotic egg versus anamniotic egg



4.  carapace versus plastron



5.  Dinosauria versus Archosauria



6.  diapsid skull versus anapsid skull



Essays (10 pts each)
1.  Describe the various forms of parental care seen in the anurans.






2.  The characteristics of the first terrestrial vertebrates must have
been advantageous to the fish in which they first appeared.  Describe
these traits and explain how they might have been advantageous for the
fish.






3.  Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of calling to a male frog.






4.  Given the following groups (Osteichthyes, Caecilians,
Testudomorpha, Synapsida, Phytosauria, Osteolepiformes, Aves, Ophidia,
Temnospondylii, Pterosauria, Saurischia, Anura), draw a cladogram that
shows the evolutionary relationships among the groups.


Define or describe (2 pts) and give a clear example (2 
pts) of each.

1.  aestivation


2.  spermatophore

3.  labyrinthodont tooth


4.  character displacement


5.  amplexus


6.  intracardiac shunt


7.  ectothermic

Natural History of Vertebrates        Name                             
Exam #3                                    Put your name on every page
Spring 1994

Compare and contrast the following pairs of terms.  (5 pts. each)
     NOTE:  Compare means to tell how the two items are similar and
     contrast means to tell how the two items are different.  To just
     give the definition of each is not a correct answer

1.  Ornithischia versus Saurischia



2.  proteroglyph versus solenoglyph



3.  supracoracoideus versus pectoralis



4.  ansiodactylus versus zygodactylous



5.  sit & wait versus active foraging



6.  tympanum versus oval window



Essays (10 pts each)
1.  Describe the differences between the arboreal theory and the
cursorial theory for the origin of flight in birds.




2.  List and describe the types of locomotion used by snakes.





3.  Describe, in detail, the flow of air through the respiratory system
of a bird.  You probably need a diagram.






4.  Discuss the disappearance of the dinosaurs and other groups of
animals at the end of the Cretacaoeus.  Be sure to discuss the taxa
involved, the possible causes, the extent of extinction, and the
evidence involved.




Define or describe (2 pts) and give a clear example (2 pts) of each.

1.  homeostasis


2.  supercooling


3.  hopping


4.  nasal salt gland


5.  urate salts


6.  parthenogensis


7.  preen gland

Natural History of Vertebrates        Name                             
Final exam                                  Put your name on every page
Spring 1994 (total of 150 points, which will be scaled to 200)

Compare and contrast the following pairs of terms.  (5 pts. each)
     NOTE:  Compare means to tell how the two items are similar and
     contrast means to tell how the two items are different.  To just
     give the definition of each is not a correct answer

1.  amphistylic jaw versus hyostylic jaw


2.  neuromast organ versus ampullary organ


3.  lateral line system versus ear


4.  diapsid skull versus synapsid skull


5.  sebaceous gland versus eccrine gland


6.  hypsodont versus brachydont


7.  protandrous versus protogynous


8.  ansiodactylus versus zygodactylus


9.  plantigrade versus unguligrade


10. inclusive fitness versus individual fitness




Define or describe (2 pts) and give a clear example (2 pts) of each.
     Note:  Your example should include a specific organism and it
     should be very clear to me why this particular organism serves as
     an example.

11.  alloparental behavior


12.  convergent evolution


13.  heterocercal tail


14.  vibrissae


15.  triconodont tooth


16.  estrus


17.  carnassials


18.  iridium


19.  parthenogensis


20.  aestivation


Essays (10 pts each)

1.  Describe the differences between the arboreal theory and the
cursorial theory for the origin of flight in birds.




2.  In humans in a long-term mating situation, compare the problems
that a male would need to solve to those problems that a female would
need to solve.  Discuss the evidence that in fact humans address these
problems.




3.  Trace the evolution of jaw structure from pelycosaurs to eutherian
mammals.  Be sure to describe the fate of reptilian jaw elements in
modern mammals.




4.  Given the following groups of extant chordates, construct a
cladogram that shows the relationships among them.  acorn worms,
woodpeckers, lampreys, shrews, squamates, rays, cetaceans,
artiodactyls, sharks, dipnoi, ducks, osteichthyes, frogs, turtles,
blackbirds, amphisbeana, crocodiles.




5.  Discuss reproductive strategies in eutherian mammals versus
metatherian mammals from fertilization to independence of the young in
terms of the relative costs and benefits of each strategy.




6.  Define counter current flow and describe the advantage of this flow
system to vertebrates.  Include at least two very detailed descriptions
of counter current flow among the vertebrates.

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