Chemistry of Life

" If it's Kinky, it's Better for You !! "

Atom - One unit of a certain kind of element.

Molecule - Two or more atoms bonded together.

Chemical formula   C6H12O6 - Shows how many atoms are in a molecule.

          N = Nitrogen

          H = Hydrogen -

          Na = Sodium

          K = Potassium

          C = Carbon

          O = Oxygen

          Ca = Calcium

Non-polar - Substance does not have charged ends.

          Hydrophobic - Substance does not dissolve in water.

Water H2O - Universal Solvent.

          Polar - Substance does have charged ends (+ & -).

                    Hydrophilic - Dissolves in water.

          Cohesion - Attraction of water molecules to each other.

          Adhesion - water is attracted to other polar molecules.

          High specific heat - has to gain or lose a lot of energy before it changes temperature.

Acid - Has more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions

          Hydrogen ion H+ - Naked proton.

Base - Has more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions

          Hydroxide ion OH- -

pH - Ratio of H+ to OH- 0-6=Acid 7=Neutral 8-14=Base

Macromolecules - Large molecules made up of repeating units

          Monomers - One unit of a macromolecule

          Polymers - 3 or more monomers

** Carbohydrates - Made up of sugars

          Monosaccharides - 1 simple sugar

          Disaccharide - 2 sugars linked together

          Polysaccharide - 3 or more simple sugars linked together

                    Starch - Polysaccharide, How plants store sugar

                    Glycogen - Polysaccharide, How we store sugar

                    Cellulose and Chitin - Polysaccharide

** Lipids - Nonpolar and hydrophobic, not all lipids are fats

          Glycerol + fatty acids - make up a lipid

          Monoglyceride - Glycerol + 1 fatty acid

          Diglyceride - Glycerol + 2 fatty acids

          Triglyceride - (A true fat) Glycerol + 3 fatty acids

                    Saturated fatty acids   C-C-C-C-C - All single bonds

                    Unsaturated fatty acids   C-C=C-C-C - One double or triple bond

                    Polyunsaturated fatty acids   C=C=C-C=C Two or more double or triple bonds

** Proteins - Sequences of amino acids

          Enzymes - speed up reactions

          Hormones - send messages from one organ to another

          Amino Acids - about 20 different amino acids - make up proteins

                    Essential Amino Acids - Have to get these in your diet

          Dipeptide - 2 amino acids

          Polypeptide - 3 or more amino acids

                    Denatured - bonds of protein break and is nonfunctional

** Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA

          DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid - contains the blueprint of life inherited from our parents

          RNA - Ribonucleic acid - involved in protein production

                    Nucleotides - building blocks of nucleic acids

Return to Greg Sievert's GB 100 Syllabus
Last updated on 4 January 2018