Atom - One unit of a certain kind of element.
Molecule - Two or more atoms bonded together.
Chemical formula C6H12O6 - Shows how many atoms are in a molecule.
N = Nitrogen
H = Hydrogen -
Na = Sodium
K = Potassium
C = Carbon
O = Oxygen
Ca = Calcium
Non-polar - Substance does not have charged ends.
Hydrophobic - Substance does not dissolve in water.
Water H2O - Universal Solvent.
Polar - Substance does have charged ends (+ & -).
Hydrophilic - Dissolves in water.
Cohesion - Attraction of water molecules to each other.
Adhesion - water is attracted to other polar molecules.
High specific heat - has to gain or lose a lot of energy before it changes temperature.
Acid - Has more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions
Hydrogen ion H+ - Naked proton.
Base - Has more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions
Hydroxide ion OH- -
pH - Ratio of H+ to OH- 0-6=Acid 7=Neutral 8-14=Base
Macromolecules - Large molecules made up of repeating units
Monomers - One unit of a macromolecule
Polymers - 3 or more monomers
** Carbohydrates - Made up of sugars
Monosaccharides - 1 simple sugar
Disaccharide - 2 sugars linked together
Polysaccharide - 3 or more simple sugars linked together
Starch - Polysaccharide, How plants store sugar
Glycogen - Polysaccharide, How we store sugar
Cellulose and Chitin - Polysaccharide
** Lipids - Nonpolar and hydrophobic, not all lipids are fats
Glycerol + fatty acids - make up a lipid
Monoglyceride - Glycerol + 1 fatty acid
Diglyceride - Glycerol + 2 fatty acids
Triglyceride - (A true fat) Glycerol + 3 fatty acids
Saturated fatty acids C-C-C-C-C - All single bonds
Unsaturated fatty acids C-C=C-C-C - One double or triple bond
Polyunsaturated fatty acids C=C=C-C=C Two or more double or triple bonds
** Proteins - Sequences of amino acids
Enzymes - speed up reactions
Hormones - send messages from one organ to another
Amino Acids - about 20 different amino acids - make up proteins
Essential Amino Acids - Have to get these in your diet
Dipeptide - 2 amino acids
Polypeptide - 3 or more amino acids
Denatured - bonds of protein break and is nonfunctional
** Nucleic Acids - DNA and RNA
DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid - contains the blueprint of life inherited from our parents
RNA - Ribonucleic acid - involved in protein production
Nucleotides - building blocks of nucleic acids