Body cavity (coelom) - Where your internal organs go.
Thoracic cavity - Contains heart and lungs.
Diaphragm - A sheet of muscle that separates the 2 cavities and aids in breathing.
Abdominal cavity - Contains most of the remaining organs, most of which makes up the digestive system.
* Ingestion - Eating food
* Digestion - breaking down food into its basic parts (monomers).
* Absorption - Transporting digested materials from the digestive tract over to the circulatory system then to all the cells of the body.
* Elimination - Getting rid of undigested material.
Mouth - The teeth break food down into smaller bits. pH = 7
Salivary glands - (Accessory Organ) Produce saliva which helps moisten the food. Also contains an enzyme which starts to break down starch into simple sugars.
Uvula - Hangy downy thing that covers the entrance to the nasal cavity.
Pharynx - Where the respiratory and digestive tracts split.
Epiglottis - Covers the opening to the trachea when food is swallowed.
Esophagus - Connects the pharynx to the stomach.
Peristalsis - Rhythmic contractions that push food through the digestive tract.
Cardiac Sphincter - A round muscle to separate the esophagus from the stomach. Opening to the stomach.
Stomach - A storage pouch. Holds about a quart(1 liter). Undergoes peristalsis
Gastric pits - Are pits in the wall of the stomach. Secrete 3 things.
Mucus - Which protects the wall of the stomach
Hydrochloric acid HCL - Makes the stomach a pH of 2. Also activates pepsin
Pepsin - Once activated by HCL starts protein breakdown.
Pyloric sphincter - A round muscle to separate the stomach from the small intestine. Opening at the bottom of the stomach.
Chyme - Food that has been churned by the stomach from 30 minutes to 6 hours.
Small intestine - This is where most digestion and absorption occurs and is about 20 feet long (9 feet in a living person). pH = 8
Pancreas - (Accessory Organ) Dumps digestive enzymes and sodium bicarbonate (pH = 8) into the small intestine to finish digestion of the different foods.
Sodium bicarbonate - Makes the stomach basic - 8
Liver - (Accessory Organ) Produces bile (about 1.5 liters a day)
Bile - Emulsifies fat
Emulsifier - Breaks up or disperses big fat globs into smaller droplets of fat.
Gall bladder - (Accessory Organ) Bile is stored here
Glycogen - How the liver stores excess sugar.
Villi and Microvilli - Folds and smaller folds that increase the surface area of the small intestine about 600x (about the size of a tennis court).
Large Intestine (Colon) - Reabsorbs water and salt and makes feces. Bacteria in the large intestine provide us with vitamin K.
Appendix - Used to digest cellulose.
Feces - Undigested waste to be eliminated.
Anus - Has 2 sphincters - the internal one is involuntary and the external one is voluntary.
RDA-Recommended dietary allowance - Average daily level of nutrient intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all healthy people.
Food groups - Similar types of foods/nutrients
BMR - Basal metabolic rate - The number of calories we burn while resting.
Obesity - Being more than 20% heavier than the average person of the same sex and height.
BMI - Body Mass Index - 25 = Overweight; 30 or more = Obese.
Vertebrates have a: Mouth --> Pharynx --> Esophagus --> Stomach --> Small Intestine --> Large Intestine --> Anus.
Diet: Typical Recommended
Protein 16 % 12 %
Carbohydrates 46 % 58 %
Fats 38 % 30 %
RDA for Protein:
Men (154 lbs) = 56 g
Females (120 lbs) = 44 g
1 slice of roast beef = 25 g
1 glass of milk = 8 g
BMR: Males = 1,600 - 1,800 kcal / day
Females = 1,300 - 1,500 kcal / day