DNA & Protein Synthesis

" One person's Junk is another person's Treasure "

Nucleotides - Monomers of Nucleic Acids

          Deoxyribose sugar - Make up sugar-phosphate backbone

          Phosphate - Make up sugar-phosphate backbone

          Nitrogenous base - Join to make the ladder rungs - 4 types

                    Adenine - A

                    Guanine - G

                    Thymine - T

                    Cytosine - C

Double helix - DNA is arranged like a spiral ladder

          Base Paring Rule = A pairs with T and G pairs with C

          Complementary copies - Opposite sides of DNA (are not exact copies)

Sister Chromatids - 2 identical copies of a chromosome(strand of DNA)

Mutation - Any mistake in the DNA

          Mutagens - Anything that causes a mutation to occur

RNA - The other Nucleic Acid similar to DNA

          Ribose sugar - Make up sugar-phosphate backbone

          Phosphate - Make up sugar-phosphate backbone

          Nitrogenous base - 4 types A, U (Replaces Thymine), G, C

                    Uracil - Pairs with A in the DNA

Transcription - Where a gene in the DNA is transcribed into an mRNA copy

Gene - A section (nucleotide sequence) of the DNA molecule that deturmines the sequence of amino acids in a protein chain

Messenger RNA (mRNA) - A (copy of the gene) nucleotide sequence that now can leave the nucleus

          Introns - Nucleotide sequences that don't code for the protein "Junk?"

          Exons - Nucleotide sequences that do code for the protein

Translation - Out in the cytoplasm at a ribosome, the mRNA sequence is translated into a specific chain of amino acids

          Codon - a 3 nucleotide sequence on mRNA that calls for a specific amino acid


DNA -------> mRNA --------> Protein
















































Return to Greg Sievert's GB 100 Syllabus
Last updated on 2 January 2018