Exocrine - Secrete products into ducts. Sweat glands, salivary glands.
Endocrine - Ductless glands, secrete hormones into circulatory system.
Hormone - Chemicals that are produced and secreted by endocrine glands that travel through the circulatory system and act only on a specific target cell.
Target cell - Cells with a receptor for a specific hormone.
Steroid hormones - Are lipid (fat) soluble. They can diffuse through the plasma membrane (made of lipids), and act inside the cell to make new enzymes or proteins.
Protein hormones - Are not lipid soluble and cannot diffuse into the cell. They interact with the cell by attaching to a receptor on the cell surface.
Hypothalamus - Links the nervous and endocrine systems.
Pituitary gland - The master gland of the body (pea sized). Makes and stores hormones.
*Oxytocin - It targets the breast and uterus of mammals. It stimulates milk release into the ducts and stimulates uterine contraction during birth.
*Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) - Its target is the kidney. The function is to regulate water balance in the kidney. It actively causes us to retain water.
*Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) - Its target gland is the thyroid. It causes the thyroid to release thyroxine (a hormone).
*Thyroxine - Stimulate your metabolic rate, growth and development. Need iodine to make throxine.
Goiter - Iodine is needed to synthesize thyroxine so a lack of iodine in the diet causes an enlargement of thyroid gland (too little thyroxine - too much TSH).
*Growth hormone (GH) - It target is muscle and bone. If there is not enough present in children it causes dwarfism. If there is too much present it causes gigantism in children.
Acromegaly - Over secretion of GH in adults - they can't get taller but do get larger hands, feet, and face.
*Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) - in females the target is the ovary and it causes egg development, in men target is the testis and causes sperm development
*Luteinizing Hormone (LH) - in women (ovary) causes ovulation, in men (testis) causes production and release of testosterone.
Pineal gland - A gland in the brain that releases melatonin.
*Melatonin - Controls your biological clock (sleep and eating patterns and body temperature). Released at night.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) - Depression during the winter when there is shorter day length you release more melatonin.
Pancreas - Regulates blood sugar levels.
islets of Langerhans - Islands of cells that release glucagon and insulin.
*Glucagon - Increases blood sugar by targeting the liver cells to release glucose.
*Insulin - decreases blood sugar levels by targeting the liver, also fat and muscle to take up glucose from the blood.
Diabetes mellitus - High blood sugar .
Type 1 - (childhood onset) The body can not produce insulin - correct with insulin injections to lower blood sugar.
Type 2 - (adult onset - usually overweight and over 30) The body can not respond to insulin (correct with diet and exercise).