Karyotype - A picture of a persons 23 pairs of chromosomes.
Autosomal chromosomes - The first 22 pairs of chromosomes.
Sex chromosome - The last pair of chromosomes.
Nondisjunction - Where chromosomes fail to separate properly during gametogenesis 1 and/or 2 and is the cause of too many or too few chromosomes.
Y chromosome - Small chromosome only males have it.
X chromosome - Large chromosome - Both sexes have it.
Barr body - In females, an inactive X chromosome.
X-linked traits - Genes that are carried on the X chromosome - males can only have 1.
Hemophilia - X-linked Recessive disorder - can't clot your blood.
Color blindness - X-linked Recessive disorder - can't see colors like red and green.
Sex-influenced traits - Beards, and Breasts - Your phenotype depends on your sex (whether you make testosterone).
Male pattern baldness - Sex-influenced - Your phenotype depends on your sex.
Amniocentesis - 12th week push a needle into the uterus and take a sample of amniotic fluid with cells in it
Chorionic villus sampling CVS - Takes a group of cells from part of the placenta - Earlier results
Screening eggs - A Preovulatory egg (only completed meiosis 1 - split homologous chromosomes) is removed and tests are done on the polar body.
Color blindness is X-linked -- Possible Genotypes:
XBXB = Female with normal color vision
XBXb = Carrier female with normal color vision
XbXb = Female who is color blind
XBY = Male with normal color vision
XbY = Male who is color blind
Sex-Influenced traits - Beards, Breasts, and Baldness
BB = Normal Normal
Bb = Bald Normal
bb = Bald Bald