Membranes - Act as barriers and made of a double layer of lipids with proteins embedded in them.
Selectively permeable - let some things through and keep others out.
Channel proteins - Nonselective transport - Proteins with channels through them.
Solution - Liquid with something dissolved in it.
Solvent - Liquid
Solute - substance dissolved in the fluid.
Diffusion - molecules flow from a high concentration to a lower concentration.
Osmosis - only when water is moving through a membrane from a high concentration to a lower concentration.
Isotonic - a fluid that has the same number of solutes as the fluid inside the cell.
Carrier proteins - Selective transport - Moves a specific ion across a membrane.
Facilitated diffusion - Moves a specific ion across a membrane from high to low concentration.
Active transport - Moves a specific ion across a membrane from low to high concentration (needs energy.)
Chemiosmosis - added energy moves H+ across a membrane from low to high concentration then as they come back across they form ATP.
Energy - The capacity to do work.
Exergonic reactions - will occur on their own without having to add energy.
Endergonic reactions - require energy to occur.
ATP - (Adenosine Triphosphate) - The immediate source of energy that drives most cellular work.
Adenine (a nucleotide)
Ribose (5 C Sugar)
3 Phosphate groups (stored energy)
ADP - (Adenosine Diphosphate) - Missing 1 phosphate.
Enzymes - speed up and control reaction rates.
Activation Energy - The energy needed for the molecules to react
Active site - region on the enzyme which binds to the substrate
Substrate - The substance being acted upon (A + B or C)
Reactant + Reactant = Product
A + B = C
ATP ---> ADP + P + ( Release 7.3 kcal energy )
Glutamic acid + Ammonia + 3.4 kcal energy = Glutamine
ADP + P + ( Need 7.3 kcal energy ) ---> ATP
Enzyme + Substrate = Product + Enzyme