Respiratory System

" Now you know why I will not tell funny jokes "

Respiration - Exchange of gases between an organism and its environment.

Pharynx - Shared by digestive and respiratory systems

Larynx - Contains vocal cords - voice box

Trachea - Contains mucus elevator

Bronchi (Bronchus) - One bronchus to each lung

          Bronchioles - 1 million per lung

          Alveoli - Clusters of tiny air sacs

Epiglottis - A flap of cartilage that covers the entrance to the larynx.

          Heimlich maneuver - Pressing up forcibly under the ribcage of a choking person to force a foreign object from the trachea.

Pleural membranes - 2 thin membranes with fluid between them, that keep the two lungs from deflating when you exhale and helps inflate the lungs.

Diaphragm - A thin sheet of muscle that separates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity and is used for breathing.

Intercostal muscles - The muscles between your ribs that help inflate and shrink the chest cavity.

Inspiration - Inhaling. The volume of the chest cavity gets larger so pressure drops and you inhale.

Expiration - Exhaling. The volume of the chest cavity gets smaller so pressure increases and you exhale.

Tidal Volume - The amount of air exchange during a normal breath which is about 500 ml at rest (1/2 liter).

Vital Capacity - The maximum amount of air that can be forced out of the lungs after maximum inhalation. This is about 3 1/2 - 4 1/2 liters.

Respiratory pigments - Makes our blood red.

          Hemoglobin - 4 protein chains each with a heme so it can carry 4 O2 molecules. 1 RBC has 280 million hemoglobin molecules.

                    Heme - An iron complex that carries an O2 or CO2.

Atmospheric air - The air that you breath in.

Exhaled air - The air that you breath out.

Smoking Cigarettes - 1 Cigarette = shortens your life by 10 minutes and 1 Pack of Cigarettes = shortens your life by 3 hours.

Pathway of Air:

Nose or Mouth ---> Pharynx ---> Larynx ---> Trachea ---> Bronchi ---> Bronchioles ---> Alveoli

Composition of :

          Inhaled (Atmospheric) air:           Exhaled air:
                              21% - Oxygen                   16% - Oxygen
                                .04% - CO2                        4.4% - CO2
                             79% - Nitrogen                   79% - Nitrogen

Return to Greg Sievert's GB 100 Syllabus
Last updated on 1 April 2018