1. Which of these is the first step in the scientific method?
a. You analyze data. b. You make an observation.
c. You run an experiment. d. You make a hypothesis.
2. An explanation for some scientific phenomenon that is supported by a great amount of scientific reasoning and experimental evidence is called a(n) _____________.
a. theory b. hypothesis c. observation d. prediction
3. A hypothesis is __________________
a. accepted scientific fact that cannot be disputed
b. the same as a theory
c. an explanation or “best guess” for observed facts
d. both b and c
4. A laboratory designs a new pain killing drug. They give it to 1000 people who have pain. Of these, 650 people say it helped reduce their pain, 300 people say it had no effect, and 50 people say it made them sick. From these data you conclude that ___________.
a. the drug works and should be marketed
b. you cannot say if the drug works or not because there was no control group
c. the drug should never be marketed because some people got sick from it
d. it should only be available to hospital patients
5. You are working in a laboratory interested in finding new drugs to kill bacteria. You have discovered a new compound which appears to kill gram negative bacteria. You set up an experiment and grow bacteria in the following conditions: Group A - bacteria are grown on agar that DOES NOT contain your new compound. Group B - bacteria are grown on agar containing a 5% concentration of your new compound. Group C - bacteria are grown on agar containing a 10% concentration of your new compound. Group D - bacteria are grown on agar containing a 20% concentration of your new compound. Which of these groups is your control group?
a. Group A b. Group B c. Group C d. Group D
6. If a biologist uses the term theory it means _________.
a. an idea with little evidence to support it
b. an explanation for something which is supported by lots of experimental evidence
c. an explanation for something which is supported by a small amount of experimental evidence
d. about the same thing as a hypothesis
7. A hypothesis is ___________________.
a. about the same thing as a theory
b. an explanation for something that has a lot of scientific evidence to support it
c. an observation
d. an explanation for something a scientist has observed
8. Which of these is based on the most experimental evidence?
d. either hypothesis or theory, they mean the same thing
9. All living species belong to one of three ____________.
a. domains b. classes c. phyla d. kingdoms